Introduction to Assistive Technology for Vision Impairments Braille embossing

Traditionally braille materials have been produced by embossing braille on heavy paper. Each braille character is a cell of either 6 or 8 dots. Although this method is still widely used, embossed braille material is heavy and bulky, and each page of braille has significantly less information than a printed page of similar size. 
For example, the braille version of a book would be around 2.5 times bigger than a printed book. Another disadvantage is that braille embossing is more expensive and less flexible for error corrections as compared to print materials. Hence very few printed materials are available in embossed braille form.  
Let’s see a few diverse means available for embossing braille for reading and writing:

Name & Description
Reference link
Manual embossing – typing braille by hand
Braille Slate & Stylus
  Writing tools for embossing braille by hand. These are also considered to be early educational tools while learning Braille.
Perkins Brailler 
A mechanical braille writer (resembles a typewriter).
Take Note
Compact device designed by Enability Lab, IITM, for people with vision impairment to record notes in Braille.
Machine embossing
Braille press
For large scale manufacturing of Brialle materials.
Desktop Braille embosser 
Compact, high-speed, tabletop braille embossers. These machines receive data from the computer or the USB thumb drive and emboss this information in braille onto heavy paper using solenoids that control the embossing pins in the printer. The cost of these machines start from around $ 2000.
Braigo – a Do-It-Yourself Braille Printer in Lego
The high cost of braille printers makes braille inaccessible to most of the population with vision impairments who live in developing countries. A young inventor, Shubham Banerjee, has been trying to tackle this challenge by creating a ‘Do-It-Yourself' (DIY) braille printer kit using Lego
Refreshable Braille Display  
The Refreshable Braille Display approach uses raised pins to form braille as a series of dots. It is controlled by an electronic circuit and can be interfaced to computer displays or braille keyboards through the USB interface or even wirelessly through bluetooth.  This allows information to be stored electronically and thus greatly reduces the bulk, as compared to the traditional embossed paper format. Electronic information can also be easily edited and scanned through for searches. Each refreshable braille cell has a set of small pins that correspond to the dot pattern for a letter or word sign which are raised.  
This device is ideally used by people who are deafblind (A person who is both deaf and blind).
Annie Smart Class: Made-in-India Innovation 
A device designed by Thinkerbell Labs, an Indian startup to address low braille literacy rate. This can be independently used by children with vision impairment to learn how to read and write in Braille
Orbit Reader 20
Dotbook – 
  India's First Braille Laptop Additional resources:

A. If you want to further explore how braille works in electronic devices, delve into the hour-long webinar below!
Video – 60 minutes

How Braille Works Electronically

B. Tactile Tablet
(2-min read)
BLITAB® – World’s first Tactile Tablet for Blind and Visually Impaired People